Variations or change orders are inevitable in any construction project. They are defined as any change that happens in the scope of the project. Change is an additional scope of work, omission, or even alteration. This paper presents the main causes of variation orders in MENA region represented by Egypt. The research investigates the causes, as identified by clients, consultants, and contractors. It classifies them into four main categories: owner related, contractor related, consultant related, and other causes. The top 10 most important causes are ranked among the opinion of each party. The study reveals that the top 3 causes are: 1) The client instruction of additional works; 2) The contractor using ambiguous areas in the contract to request variations, and 3) continuous changes in the project schedule. A comparison about causes of variations was performed between Egypt, Palestine, Malaysia, and the United Kingdom. Furthermore, a model is proposed to provide the user with a scale that predicts the effect of the events triggering variations on both project cost and time.
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