In Ecuador, 46.4% of households lack access to a sewerage system, where as a result much wastewater is discharged from sewerage into the environment untreated. This paper presents the results of a research project aimed at the development of prototypes that retrofit existing toilets into a manual suction ultra-low flush toilet. These prototypes use around one liter of water, and therefore the amount of sewage produced is substantially reduced. The strategy covered two areas. First, the prototype design is developed with the active participation from users using sociological study tools such as workshops, focus groups and interviews, which enabled to polish or re-define design aspects aimed at improving levels of end-user acceptance. Second, dissemination of results and designed products is implemented through web platforms to enable replicability, allowing potential participation from external collaborators. The main approach of this research is to act at a small scale (houses, departments, buildings) in order to amend the amount of metric tons of wastewater within a larger urban scale.
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