Due to its scarcity and the detrimental environmental effect of its extraction, leading to governmental restrictions, the good quality natural rounded siliceous sand became less available in Lebanon. This national and international issue affects the construction industry through the cost and the quality of concrete. Currently, this sand, too fine to be used alone as fine aggregate in concrete mixes, is always mixed with an appropriate percentage of crushed limestone sand to meet the standard grading. The objective of the study is to assess the feasibility of total replacement of natural rounded siliceous sand by crushed limestone sand to avoid the dependency of the construction field on the quality and availability of this material in the Lebanese context. The research program consists of proposing various concrete mixes without natural sand and verifying, following a performance-based approach, that their behaviors can be maintained, at different ages of hardened states, compared to those of the reference concrete incorporating natural sand. The resulting comparisons allow identifying the influences on compressive and flexural strengths of natural sand substitution and of the variations of granular size distribution. At this stage of the study, some preliminary conclusions about the applicability of the solution of natural sand total substitution are proposed.
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