influence of calcined nanoclay (CNC) on the porosity and fracture toughness of treated hemp fabric-reinforced cement nanocomposites is presented in this paper. Characterisation of microstructure is investigated using Quantitative X-ray Diffraction Analysis (QXDA) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). An optimum replacement of ordinary Portland cement with 1 wt% CNC is observed through reduced porosity and increased fracture toughness of treated hemp fabric-reinforced nanocomposite. The microstructural analysis indicates that the CNC affect not only as a filler to improve the microstructure, but also as the activator to support the pozzolanic reaction and thus improved the adhesion between the treated hemp fabric and the matrix. Cost-benefit analysis indicates the benefit of such cement eco-nanocomposites to develop new environmentally friendly nanomaterials and it can be used for various construction applications such as, ceilings and roofs.
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